Actually you do have a chance punching out when launched from a US carrier - one of our Tomcats “spit the shuttle” about a third of the way down the cat stroke - he went off the pointy in at 85 KIAS…a bit below stall speed for an F-14. The RIO punched them out and though it was close, both made it just fine. Just say’n
No? Unless you get some sort of catapult malfunction like Hanger shared, the catapult is going to have you going over the bow at a much higher speed than the ski ramp, thus you can fly/glide for longer, more time to assess and punch out.
On a ski ramp if an engine craps out than you’re kind of toast. You’re going slower, you’ve got a higher AoA, and now you’re not flying so much as falling without style. Compound this if you happen to be attempting to carry the pitiful combat load of a stobar jet.